01533-A: Development of a Canine Stifle Computer Model for Evaluation of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficiency

Grant Status: Closed

Grant Amount: $12,591
Gina Bertocci, PhD; University of Louisville
December 1, 2010 - February 29, 2012


Breed(s): -All Dogs
Research Program Area: Musculoskeletal Conditions and Disease
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Cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency is one of the most common orthopedic problems in dogs, having an economic impact of more than $1 billion in the United States in 2003. In a recent study, 31,698 of 1,243,681 dogs examined by veterinarians between 1964 and 2003 were diagnosed with CrCL deficiency; a prevalence of 2.55% across all breeds. CrCL rupture is common in some breeds while unlikely in others; Newfoundlands (8.9%), Rottweilers (8.3%), and Labrador Retrievers (5.8%) have the greatest prevalence of CrCL rupture. Despite such high prevalence, CrCL deficiency is still poorly understood and is thought to be due to a degradation process and not the sole result of trauma. We propose to develop a canine pelvic limb 3D computer simulation model of canine walking to gain an improved understanding of stifle (knee) biomechanics and factors that may predispose dogs to CrCL rupture. Such a model will allow for noninvasive visualization and analysis of stifle biomechanics. We will utilize our computer model to investigate anatomical characteristics and biomechanical parameters such as ligament stiffness, joint laxity, etc. to gain an understanding of their role in producing conditions that may predispose dogs to CrCL deficiency. The 3D stifle computer model will be used to evaluate increased stresses placed on remaining ligaments and stifle structures following CrCL rupture. Although beyond the scope of this study, our long-term research goal is to apply the findings of our biomechanical analysis towards an evidence-based assessment of currently used CrCL surgical procedures.


>Brown, N. P., Bertocci, G. E., & Marcellin-Little, D. J. (2013). Development of a Canine Stifle Computer Model to Evaluate Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficiency. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, 13(02), 1350043. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219519413500437

Brown, N. P., Bertocci, G. E., & Marcellin-Little, D. J. (2014). Evaluation of varying morphological parameters on the biomechanics of a cranial cruciate ligament–deficient or intact canine stifle joint with a computer simulation model. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 75(1), 26–33. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.75.1.26

Brown, N. P., Bertocci, G. E., & Marcellin-Little, D. J. (2015). Influence of biomechanical parameters on cranial cruciate ligament–deficient or –intact canine stifle joints assessed by use of a computer simulation model. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 76(11), 952–958. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.76.11.952

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